Selasa, 23 Juli 2013

Selasa, 23 Juli 2013

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Senin, 28 Maret 2011

Mountaineering

Senin, 28 Maret 2011
A. Meaning

       MOUNT etymologically derived from the English language which means mountain. In the world of nature lovers, mountaineering is a hard sport that requires skill, strength, management, and interest and high fighting spirit and with travel and all the activities carried out at the mountain starting from the foothills to the summit of the mountain, and then dropped safely.

Activities are usually done in mountaineering are:

     1. Walking (hill walking)
         is traveling at a relatively hills sloping and not require special equipment that are technical field

     2. Scrambling
         is climbing a rock cliff that is not so steep, sometimes using hands for balance.

   
 3. Climbing
         a. Rock climbing

             is climbing on the rock cliffs that require climbing techniques with special equipment
         b. Snow and ice climbing
             is climbing on ice and snow that require special technical dominance, technical     equipment as a safety.

B. Preparation of Mountain climbing

The preparation needs to be done, among others.
1. Expedition plans
2. Collecting data on the mountain we will climb
3. Good understanding of map
4. Define the benefits of climbing
5. Preparing yourself for climbers

The main factors influencing the success of an ascent:
1. internal factors, a factor of self includes the readiness of the climber's physical, mental knowledge, techniques or skills and equipment.
2. external factors, are factors beyond the person of the climbers include storms, rain, cold air and other natural conditions.

For that climbers must be able to choose the correct path and must be clever deal with natural conditions. Also before the first mountain climbing should be equipped with skills such as: read and understand maps, compass reading, technique and equipment adequate P3K (logistics tents, medicines and clothing). before we make the climb should be informed before the public or directly to the local village chief.

1. Basic Supplies

     a. Or Carrier Backpacks
         Carrier allows you to put clothing, logistics, medicine and toiletries.
         There are things we need to remember in the use of Carrier. It is comfort that skeletal         Carrier in accordance with the shape our backbone.

         Things that need to be in choosing a carrier:
         1) Lightweight. We recommend selecting Carrier made ​​of water proof material, this  material
             not absorb much water when wet and also to protect its contents.
         2) Strong. Able to carry loads safely, not easily torn and resilient
high.
         3) Comfort (comfortable) Carrier who has the frame, is useful for heavy loads
equitable and balanced throughout the body. Carrier penyadang rope must be strong, rather wide,
padded and easily adjustable.

        Packing ways are:
       1) Put the goods heavier as high and as close as possible kebadan.
           Goods relatively more light is placed at the bottom.
       2) Classify Goods goods goods goods that often duperlukan in
travel placed on the top or on the outer pocket pouch Cerrier
such as ponchos, P3K equipment, cameras etc.
       3) Input into pelastik bag that does not penetrate water, especially clothing,
books etc.

     b. Tent  
         About the tent that must be considered is the tent that can withstand rain and wind. To try to establish a sign in a flat near springs far from the tree - a dry tree and facing the street.

     c. Cooking and Food Supplies
         Tools - tool cooking equipment is carried should be practical and efficient, such as nesting, gas stove tube. While the food is brought must be concise and easy food that is cooked like noodles, sardines, corned beef, canned milk and other foods that contain lots of carbohydrate or foods that generate a lot of energy, such as chocolate, brown sugar and honey

     d. Clothing
         Due to frequent changes in weather, then you should wear clothing that can absorb sweat, do not forget to bring a jacket or sweater, gloves, hats or colored SEBO tacky, useless if lost will be easily seen by the SAR team. On the way up the mountain should wear clothing that is easy or not too dry to absorb water when wet. Regarding the best bedding to use Sleeping Bag (sleeping bag), good material is the type of Down and duvets (made of goose feathers) or from parachute material.

     e. Shoes or Sandals Mountain

         Point to protect our feet from tejam stone, wood spears, animal bites and thorns - thorns that many of us met during the trip up the mountain. The requirement - the requirement of good shoes are shoes that have a large flower with a deep niche and high-backed, point to steady the foot of steep cliffs and steep rocks. We recommend using shoes or sandals are made of rubber because the danger of not easily torn when exposed to thorns or stones or rocks and wear shoes larger sandals to avoid blisters on the feet.

      f. Rain jacket or Poncho
         Useless if the circumstances or the weather or rain there do not support our could use a raincoat or poncho to protect our bodies from the water rain, so we do not get wet and cold.

      g. Lantern or Flashlight
          Useful for lighting, if we make the climb at night and for lighting in the tent at night.

      h. P3K Equipment
          This equipment is very important to cope with unexpected circumstances such as exposure  of thorns, animal stings, snake bites and others.

          Some of the materials or equipment that must be taken P3K include:
* Alcohol
* Clean water, Boor water, povidone iodine (medicine to wash the wound)
* Paracetamol (medication to reduce pain)
* Ammonia or Eau de cologne (materials to sensitize) The type of tool
   should be available include:
* Bandages fast
* pads rolls
* Bandages triangular
* Cotton
* Plaster
* Sterile Gauze
* Scissors
* Tweezers
* Needles

       i. Equipment for MCK include:
* Towels
* Soap
* Brush your teeth
* toothpaste
* And others.

     2. Special Equipment

          Special equipment is equipment that are customized for the purpose of ascent such as:

          a. Research equipment
              cameras, books - books and equipment - other stationery.

          b. Supplies along the river
              boats, paddles, buoys and other - other.

          c. Cliff climbing equipment
              karmantel rope, karbinel, Chock, figure eight and others.

     3. Additional Equipment

          This equipment should not be taken as: walkmen, guitar and other - other.


C. How Mountain Climbing

       How to climb the mountain does not exist of its provisions, it is up to the person of the climbers themselves, but they should be careful and do not need to hurry. If we make the climb the mountain with the team leader should have to pay attention to its members both physical and non physical, leaders must understand the ascent path, while hiking alone when we must understand the point, clever use a compass, read maps and to bring equipment and shall notify the residents or the village head in that place. The most important in the ascent must walk carefully and do not be arrogant

D. Disease And Risk

      The disease is often experienced by the climbers on the mountain is usually caused by altitude, cold temperatures or excessive heat and fatigue. These diseases include:

      1. Cold (hypothermia)

            Hiportemia disease is the body heat faster than the body temperature decreased to 350 C.   The symptoms observed with changes in behavior that is abnormal and lack of concentration.
The fix:
            a. Victims do not get to sleep
            b. Replace wet clothes with dry clothes and warm.
            c. Give heat from the outside (fire pit, quilts)
            d. Cover the victim’s body with a blanket and use slipping bag (sleeping bag)
            e. Provide food and beverages warm and sweet. Find a place that is safe from wind gusts
            f. Do not give balm.
            g. Avoid drinking alcohol and cigarettes

      2. Mountain Sickness (Fear of Height)
            Is a fear of heights. The symptoms are headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea. How to  care by providing adequate rest.
            How to prevent:
            a. Bring down to a lower place
            b. Before climbing, adequate rest
Simak
Baca secara fonetik

      3. Muscle Spasms
           Is the stiffness of the body and limb for some time.
           How to cope:
           a. loose muscle spasms.
           b. Massage muscle spasms slowly.
           c. Give the victim to drink salt water
           d. Compressed muscle spasms before or after.


      4. Dislocate or sprain
            That is because loosing wound or tear connective tissue of joints.
            How to cope:
            a. Elevate injured area.
            b. Clean and treatment
            c. Wrap and rest.
            4. Lack of oxygen (hipokia)

           If we want to do Mountaineering activities we must equip ourselves with sufficient             knowledge, we can read books, ask for directions on the people who know Mountaineering.
Simak




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Minggu, 27 Maret 2011

SURVIVAL

Minggu, 27 Maret 2011
       Mount is one of the unusual environment inhabited by humans. But the mountain is often the place of first choice for some people to their activities. Natural conditions on the mountain is very difficult to predict. Sometimes the weather is sunny but with a matter of minutes has become a rain accompanied by strong winds. Also very cold weather in the mountains. No wonder so many accidents on the mountain. How to get started well before undertaking activities in the mountain is an act of survival is the main and most easily done, but the benefits are very large for human life. Know the terrain In general, the terrain on the mountain is dangerous, especially for people who never knew him, but for some people the mountain is a very loved for its natural beautiful. In addition there is the sensation of its own for people who can climb and reach the top of the mountain.
1. Here are a few things about the field conditions on the mountain:
     1. The cold temperatures, several mountains in Indonesia can even reach 0 degrees Celsius.
     2. Contours of uneven ground, a lot of ravines and valleys.
     3. Some mountain slopes in Indonesia there is a dense forest, so many sources of food and water, but at the top of the mountain, almost no food source.
    4. To the mountain which has a forest on its slopes, there are usually animals such as tigers, boars, poisonous snakes and wild dogs.

2. Preparation Things to be prepared when the volcanic activity are:
     1. The condition of a healthy body.
     2. Mental condition is stable.
     3. The purpose of conducting activities
in the mountain should be clear, so that patterns of activity that can be well planned. Given the conditions in mountain terrain is different from the usual field conditions we face, then there is the equipment and materials we have to prepare and bring namely:
         a. Basic Equipment
            1. Clothing namely: field clothes, jerseys from a material that can absorb sweat, pants (no jeans), dress in moderation, raincoats, socks, gloves, headgear (hats jungle and balaclava), belts, shoes for hiking (tracking .)
            2. Equipment for the rest: shelter (tent-made or natural), sleeping bag, mat or pad.
            3. Equipment for cooking: stove, pots, cups / plates (from plastic or other materials that are not easily broken), pematik fire, and fuel (adjusted for the stove or heater yan available)
            4. Personal equipment: soap, toothbrush, towel, personal medication, needles, thread and other equipment as a habit.
            5. Rucksack or backpack in accordance with luggage and jungle knives and ponchos.
        b. Additional Equipment
            1. Navigation Equipment: GPS, map, compass, wrist watches
            2. Photography Equipment: SLR camera or pocket, camcorders.
            3. Communication equipment: wireless phones, handy talky.




3. Ethics at Mount
     Wherever we are we should still keep the habit of the local environment.
So when doing activities in the mountains, indigenous customs or rules of our thirst for respect and never against it. In addition to respect local customs, here are the things we should do:
     1. Control yourself, and know the ability of self-
     2. Do not leave garbage.
     3. Do not leave the fire.
     4. If you find a food source and water use only as needed.
     5. Keep keseimbangakn existing ecosystems, do damage and give permanent signs on the mountain. • Use a normal and safe path
    6. Always remember where the path that has been passed, if you get lost then it can be returned to its original path.

4. Accidents in the mountains
      Activity in the mountain is prone to accidents. The cause is a condition of extreme terrain on the mountain. Accidents in the mountains is usually caused by:
     1. Cold
Most of the victims of accidents caused by the cold mountain. So to increase the number of victims it is better to act carefully when the cold hit. As a result of cold illness a result of the cold is hypothermia, abnormal condition of the body from the cold (normal human temperature 36-37 degrees Celsius). Hypothermia is caused by heat on the surface of the body is gone so that the organs of your body will experience cold. If the blood vessels to constrict karenan cold it is very fatal consequences, because the body part that stops the blood circulation will be damaged and treatment is amputation. In addition to disturbances in the body's organs, people suffering from hypothermia will lose coordination body and rational mind, would not be surprised if people suffering from hypothermia interlocutor will mess outside conscious, even fainting. Preventing and dealing with cold

Some important points when subjected to freezing are:
a. Keep your clothing and keep dry resting place
b. Keep equipment and clothing worn in a clean condition
c. Meals and drinks are hot and contain lots of calories
d. Reduce unnecessary activities.
e. Taking refuge in a safe place.

To prevent freezing while in the mountains of the easiest is to use cold retaining clothing such as jackets. Keep use clothing that can absorb sweat well as T-shirt from cotton as a first layer that touches the skin. Wear gloves well and good socks and thick enough to withstand the cold. In addition to clothing, to overcome the chill of cold air, is the use of fire. By making the fireplace, the hot body can be better maintained. To make the flame get yourself in order to remain localized. Way as a boundary stone fireplace use and before leaving the place make sure that the fire is completely extinguished, if necessary, wash with water. Do not let the fireplace is made into the cause of destruction of ecosystems. Another way is to consume foods and beverages warm. If cold, the body will react to the burning of calories into heat. But if calories are not available then the consequences will be fatal. So food and warm drinks are cold prevention efforts from within the body good. Keep in mind also that the cold did not attack is not to be on site the wind blows.

2. Hunger
    This is the danger of the most easy to predict and overcome. As a man who every time you eat, then it should be able to measure how much food is needed in a certain period. The formula often used to bring the amount of food needed is 2n +1 (n is the number of days during the conduct of activities), if the activities carried out for 2 days, then carry supplies is 5 x the amount of food under normal conditions. If there was a famine until the causes are: incorrect calculations, missing, or lost so that the activity becomes longer. Starvation would be a serious problem, in a certain period, depending on the conditions of each person, starvation can cause death. The only way to overcome the danger of starvation in the mountains are looking for food and eating.

3. Thirst
     Water is a very important part in the human body. Lack of fluid in the body is very fatal consequences (death) dibandingakan lack of food. Impact of thirst or dehydration are: • Fainting • Loss of orientation and rational mindset
a. Body movements are not coordinated (shaking)
b. Dead If the hydrated state, the emergency measures that must be addressed:
c. Seeking shelter (if the weather is hot)
d. Rest and reduce unnecessary activities.
e. Find sources of water that can be used safely

4. Loss of direction / lost
     Outdoor activities have a major risk getting lost. When people lost their mental condition would then decrease, panic, especially if alone. Here's a tip for dealing with these circumstances:
a. Make sure that the trip, the intended direction correct, at least there are other people who knew him.
b. Always use navigation tools such as maps, compass, GPS, and communications equipment.
c. If you have lost, return to the previous road, if not met then the best step is to stop and rest a minute, think, recognize the field with navigational tools and plan further action - STOP formula (Site, Thingking, Observation, Planing)
d. Use communication tools to mengubungi others.

If you get lost and travel is not possible then the step taken is:
a. Create a sanctuary for rest.
b. Keep the body condition still can work well.
c. Check the equipment and food, if not sufficient, then you should seek.
d. Communication with others, if not possible then make a sign to attract people's attention.

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